Tag Archives: Curtis Act

How About Asking?

Senator Henry Dawes, Who Sponsored the Dawes Act

Senator Henry Dawes, Who Sponsored the Dawes Act

Native peoples and European immigrants have had varied relationships. At one time, native tribes were treated as independent nations and trading partners, then later as enemies who needed to be destroyed, and even later, as childish wards who needed federal guidance to educate and assimilate them into the so-called “superior” white society. Several congressional Acts were passed to push this agenda forward, among them the Dawes and Curtis Acts. Land was the essential question: how should Indians hold titles to it?

In 1881 Senator George Hunt Pendleton of Ohio argued that whether for right or wrong, fairly or unfairly, “They [Indians] must either change their mode of life or die.” He pointed out that conditions had changed drastically for them: they were no longer treated as independent nations, they no longer had vast, rich territories on which to live, and white settlements had encroached upon lands once set aside exclusively for Native use.

Senator George Hunt Pendleton

Senator George Hunt Pendleton

Pendleton stated that as much as people might regret the situation or wish it to be otherwise, the fact remained that “The Indians cannot fish and hunt . . . they must either change their modes of of life or they will be exterminated.” He went on to urge the President: “we must change our policy . . . we must stimulate within them to the very largest degree, the idea of home, of family, and of property.”

Indian writer and activist D’Arcy McNickle (1904 – 1977), who was Cree, Métis, and Irish but an enrolled member of the Flathead tribe, later commented harshly on Pendleton’s remarks. McNickle wrote: “In the heat of such a discussion, it would not have occurred to any of the debaters to inquire of the Indians what ideas they had of home, of family, and of property.”

D'Arcy McNickle

D’Arcy McNickle

His comment was sad but true. McNickle added, “It would have been assumed, in any case, that the ideas, whatever they were were without merit since they were Indian.”

 

 

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Winter As a Time of Reflection

Rosebud Indian Agency, courtesy South Dakota State Historical Society

Rosebud Indian Agency, courtesy South Dakota State Historical Society

In most earlier cultures, life slowed during the winter months; people could not plant seed in frozen ground, days were short and dark, and most agricultural tasks were complete. As in today’s practice of contemplation at the New Year, native peoples used winter as a time to reflect on the important events of the previous year. Continue reading

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The Curtis Act

Representative Charles Curtis, center

Whenever Indian land became valuable, whites found a way to get it. After the Dawes Act (see last post) freed up former Indian land for settlement, the Curtis Act further weakened Indian control.  A mixed-blood Kansa Indian and Kansas congressman, Charles Curtis, sponsored a law that abolished tribal courts in Indian Territory. This gave the federal government even more power over Indian affairs, since everyone in the Territory now came under federal law. The Act passed in 1898; any tribal legislation after that had to be approved by the president of the United States.

Senator Curtis was born in 1860, a descendant of Kansa chief White Plume. He attended an Indian mission school on the Kaw reservation, but later attended Topeka High School. He was admitted to the bar in 1881 and ran as a Republican in Shawnee County, Kansas. He was elected to Congress in 1892 and held office in the House of Representatives for eight terms. He was elected a senator in 1907.

Indians on Kaw Reservation

Kansa Indian Bark House, courtesy Oklahoma State University

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